It took numerous years to gather incontrovertible evidence on the state of Hong Kong’s illegal wildlife. Perhaps the most comprehensive and complete examination was published in 2018, in the report ‘Trading in Extinction: The Dark Side of Hong Kong’s Wildlife Trade’, detailing and quantifying the volume, value and more in relation to wildlife trafficking. We also ran a series of seminars, moots and engaged in direct discussions with Government officials to raise awareness of the scale and pervasiveness of wildlife trafficking in the city. They started to openly describe it as such during hearings convened by the LegCo Panel on Environmental Affairs in 2021. All departments invited to express their views at that time fully supported the OSCO Amendment Bill.