Hong Kong has had an ordinance to address organised crime in the city since 1991. However, it did not specify wildlife crimes under its list of scheduled offences. Since the Amendment Bill of 2021, any crimes involving species regulated under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) may now be investigated with a more expansive array of powers.
There are 147 nations that are party to the United Nations Treaty on Organized Crime, the most widely adopted international instrument in effect to combat transnational organized crime. Signatories commit themselves to taking measures against transnational organized crime, including the creation of domestic criminal offences against participation in an organized criminal group, money laundering, corruption and obstruction of justice, among others. Whilst many nations have adopted such measures, enforcement remains a key barrier to clamping down on organised crime.